Leachate generation is a major problem for municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and causes significant threat to surface water and groundwater. Landfill Leachate can be defined as a liquid that percolates through a landfill and has extracted, dissolved and suspended matter from it. Leachate also results from precipitation entering the landfill from moisture that exists in the waste when it is composed. Landfills generally contain a highly inhomogeneous mixture of materials, which include both a very high organic component as well as soluble mineral substances. Some of the organic substances decompose naturally in the landfill body forming leachate. Landfill leachate may be characterized as a water-based solution of four groups of contaminants: dissolved organic matter (alcohols, acids, aldehydes, short chain sugars etc.), inorganic macro components (common cations and anions including sulfate, chloride, iron, aluminium, zinc and ammonia), heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Hg), and xenobiotic organic compounds such as halogenated organics.
As a general rule, leachate is characterized by high values of COD, BOD, pH, ammonia nitrogen and heavy metals, as well as strong color and bad odor. The typical Landfill leachate in India has high COD (40,000 – 80,000 mg/L), BOD (8,000 - 45,000 mg/L) ammonia (1400 - 9000 mg/l), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) (8,000 – 300,000 mg/l), and intense colour (up to 1,200 Pt-Co) and extremely bad odor. The variation of the characteristics depends on its composition and volume, weather, temperature and biodegradable matter present in the leachate against time.All these factors make leachate treatment difficult and complicated and till today there is no Dependable and Affordable technology to treat leachate in the world for water recovery and reuse.
Landfill Leachate Treatment is a major engineering challenge due to the high and variable concentrations of dissolved solids, dissolved and colloidal organics, heavy metals and xenobiotic organics.Many different methods were in use to treat the landfill leachate. Most of these methods are adapted for wastewater treatment processing and have not yielded satisfactory results to treat leachate.Due to its varying characteristics and with high conductivity, leachate is hard to treat with biological treatment or chemical treatment.
Treatment with reverse osmosis is also limited, resulting in low recoveries and fouling of the RO membranes. Reverse osmosis applicability is limited by conductivity, organics, and scaling inorganic elements such as CaSO4, Si, and Ba.For the first time in the World, REWS (INDIA) has developed techniques specifically suitable for treating Landfill Leachate using the revolutionary and most advanced water treatment technology AQUATRON BOOMTUBE FPSTAR technology. The treated water quality is suitable for re-use adhering to local and international standards.